chopsticks n : oriental tableware consisting of a pair of sticks used to eat food with [syn: chopstick]
- Plural of chopstick This word most often occurs in the plural.
Chopsticks are a pair of small even-length tapered sticks, which are generally believed to have originated in ancient China, and are the traditional eating utensils of China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and Thailand.
Chopsticks are commonly used with their associated cuisine. Chopsticks can also now be found in some areas of Tibet and Nepal that are close to Han Chinese populations, due to cross-cultural influences. Chopsticks are commonly used in Xinjiang by Uyghurs and other nationalities to eat laghman. In South East Asia chopsticks are usually used when eating noodles or white rice. Chopsticks are commonly made of wood, bamboo, metal, bone, ivory, and in modern times, plastic as well. The pair of sticks is maneuvered in one hand – between the thumb and fingers – and used to pick up pieces of food.
HistoryChopsticks originated in ancient China as early as the Shang dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and were widely used throughout East Asia. Tools resembling chopsticks were also unearthed in the archaeological site Megiddo in Israel. This discovery may reveal the existence of a trade relationship between the Middle East and Asia in early antiquity or may be an independent parallel development. Chopsticks were also common household items of civilized Uyghurs on the Mongolian steppes during the 6th–8th centuries.http://www.uglychinese.org/hun.htm
EtymologyThe English word "chopstick" seems to have been derived from Chinese Pidgin English, a pidgin where "chop chop" meant quickly.
The Mandarin Chinese word for chopsticks is kuàizi 筷子. 筷 is a semantic-phonetic (xíngshēng) compound with a phonetic part of "快", which means quick, and a semantic part, 竹, meaning bamboo. In Chinese, the old word for "chopsticks", and also in some varieties of modern Chinese such as Hokkien, was zhù (MC: ) (箸 Pinyin:zhù, Minnan: tī). However, zhù became a taboo on ships because it sounded the same as another word meaning "to stop" (住). Consequently, it was replaced by a word of opposite meaning, kuài (fast, quick). This gradually spread until it became the word for "chopsticks" in most varieties of modern Chinese. The character for this new meaning of "chopsticks" (筷) for kuài has the semantic element of bamboo added to the character meaning "fast" kuài (快).
In Japanese, chopsticks are called hashi, written . They are also known as , a phrase commonly printed on the wrappers of disposable chopsticks.
In Korean, 箸 (jeo) is used in the compound jeotgarak (젓가락) which is composed of jeo (chopsticks) and garak (stick). Jeo cannot be used alone.
In Vietnamese, chopsticks are called "đũa," also from 箸.
Many rules of etiquette govern the proper conduct of the use of chopsticks. Held between the thumb and fingers of one hand, chopsticks are used tong-like to pick up portions of food, which are prepared and brought to the table in small and convenient pieces. Chopsticks may also be used (except in Korea) as means for sweeping rice and other nominal morsels into the mouth directly from the bowl. Chopsticks are traditionally held in the right hand only, even by left-handed people. Although chopsticks may now be found in either hand, a few still consider left-handed chopstick use as improper etiquette. Some historians believe this rule of etiquette originated from a Chinese legend.
In chopstick-using cultures, food is generally made into small pieces; however, some chopstick designs have carved rings encircling the tips to aid in grasping larger pieces of food. Rice, which would usually be nearly impossible to eat with chopsticks if prepared using Western methods, is usually prepared in East Asia with less water, which leads to "clumping" of the rice conducive to eating with chopsticks. The sticky characteristics of the rice also depend on the cultivar of rice; the cultivar used in East Asian countries is usually japonica, which is a more naturally clumping kind of rice than indica, the rice used in most Western and South Asian countries.
TypesThere are several styles of chopsticks that vary in respect to:
- Length: Very long chopsticks, usually about 30 or 40 centimeters, tend to be used for cooking, especially for deep frying foods. In Japan they are called saibashi (). Shorter chopsticks are generally used as eating utensils but are also used for cooking.
- Tapering: The end of the chopsticks for picking up food are tapered to a blunt or a pointed end. Blunt tapered chopsticks provide more surface area for holding food and for pushing rice into the mouth. Pointed tapered chopsticks allow for easier manipulation of food and for picking out bones from whole cooked fish.
- Material: Chopsticks can be made from a variety of materials: bamboo, plastic, wood, bone, metal, jade, and ivory.
- Bamboo and wood chopsticks are cheap, low in temperature conduction and provide good grip for holding food due to their matte surfaces. They can warp and deteriorate with continued use. Almost all cooking and disposable chopsticks are made of either bamboo or wood. Disposable unlacquered chopsticks are used especially in restaurants. These often come as a piece of wood which is partially cut and must be broken into two chopsticks by the user (demonstrating that they have not been previously used). In Japanese, these are known as waribashi (). Natural wood chopsticks, like natural wood food preparation surfaces, have an innate antibacterial property absent from other materials. Lacquering or applying oil or paint to the wood surface reduces the antibacterial effectiveness.
- Plastic chopsticks are cheap and low in temperature conduction and are resistant to wear. However, due to their composition, plastic chopsticks are not as effective as wood and bamboo chopsticks for picking up food. Also, plastic chopsticks cannot be used for cooking since high temperatures may damage the chopsticks and produce toxic compounds.
- Metal chopsticks are durable and are easy to clean. Like plastic chopsticks, metal chopsticks do not hold food as well as wood, or bone chopsticks. They also tend to be more expensive. Their higher heat conduction also means that they are not as comfortable to use in cooking.
- Materials such as ivory, jade, gold, and silver are typically chosen for luxury reasons.
- Embellishments: Wooden or bamboo chopsticks can be painted or lacquered to decorate them and make them waterproof. Metal chopsticks are sometimes roughened or scribed on the tapered end to make them less slippery when picking up foods. High-end metal chopstick pairs are sometimes connected by a short chain at the untapered end to prevent their separation.
Styles of chopstick used in different cultures
- Chinese: longer sticks that are square in cross section at one end (where they are held) and round in cross section at the other (where they contact the food), ending in a blunt tip.
- Japanese: short to medium length sticks that taper to a pointed end. This may be attributed to the fact that the Japanese diet includes large amounts of whole bony fish. Japanese chopsticks are traditionally made of wood and are lacquered. Some chopstick sets include two lengths of chopsticks: shorter ones for women and longer ones for men. Child-sized chopsticks are widely sold.
- Korean: medium-length stainless-steel tapered rods, with a flat rectangular cross section. (Traditionally, they were made of brass or silver.) Many Korean metal chopsticks are ornately decorated at the grip.
- Vietnamese: long sticks that taper to a blunt point; traditionally wooden, but now made of plastic as well. A đũa cả is a large pair of flat chopsticks that is used to serve rice from a pot.
- Put one chopstick between the palm and the base of the thumb, using the ring finger (the fourth finger) to support the lower part of the stick. With the thumb, squeeze the stick down while the ring finger pushes it up. The stick should be stationary and very stable.
- Use the tips of the thumb, index and middle fingers to hold the other stick like a pen. Make sure the tips of the two sticks line up.
- Pivot the upper stick up and down towards the stationary lower stick. With this motion one can pick up food of surprising size.
- With enough practice, the two sticks function like a pair of pincers.
Tip: Chopsticks generally should be held at the thicker end about a third along their length for balance and efficiency. For greater reach to pick up food further away, hold the chopsticks at the upper ends.
If the tips fail to line up, it will be difficult to hold things. Hold the chopsticks upright with one of the tips lightly touching the table, and gently push the chopsticks down or gently loosen your grip for a moment to let both tips become equal in length. You can also adjust your grip or holding position this way.
With practice, it is possible to perform step one and two simultaneously, on picking up the chopsticks with one hand, with a single fluid and seamless motion. Adjust your grip if necessary.
NOTE: Although the alternative described here might be more comfortable, traditionally, the top stick is controlled using the thumb and forefinger, with the bottom chopstick resting on the middle finger.
EtiquetteIt is important to note that the chopsticks are used in a large area. While principles of etiquette are similar, the finer points may differ from region to region, and there is no single standard for the use of chopsticks. Generally, chopsticks etiquette is similar to general Western etiquette regarding eating utensils.
- Chopsticks are not used to make noise, to draw attention, or to gesticulate. Playing with chopsticks is considered bad mannered and vulgar (just as playing with cutlery in a Western environment would be deemed crass).
- Chopsticks are not used to move bowls or plates.
- Chopsticks are not used to toy with one's food or with dishes in common.
- Chopsticks are not used to pierce food, save in rare instances. Exceptions include tearing larger items apart such as vegetables and kimchi. In informal use, small, difficult-to-pick-up items such as cherry tomatoes or fishballs may be stabbed, but this use is frowned upon by traditionalists.
- Chopsticks can be rested horizontally on one's plate or bowl to keep them off the table entirely. A chopstick rest can be used to keep the points off the table.
- Chopsticks should not be left standing vertically in a bowl of rice or other food. Any stick-like object pointed upward resembles the incense sticks that some Asians use as offerings to deceased family members; certain funerary rites designate offerings of food to the dead using standing chopsticks.
- In Chinese culture, it is normal to hold the rice bowl up to one's mouth and use chopsticks to push rice directly into the mouth. If rice is served on a plate, as is more common in the West, it is acceptable and more practical to eat it with a fork, spoon or spork.
- The blunt end is sometimes used to transfer food from a common dish to a diner's plate or bowl.
- It is acceptable to transfer food to closely related people (e.g. grandparents, parents, spouse, children, or significant others) if they are having difficulty picking up the food. Also it is a sign of respect to pass food to the elderly first before the dinner starts.
- It is impolite to spear food with a chopstick and/or play with the chopsticks.
- Food should not be transferred from one's own chopsticks to someone else's chopsticks. Japanese people will always offer their plate to transfer it directly, or pass a person's plate along if the distance is great. Transferring directly is how bones are passed as part of Japanese funeral rites.
- The pointed ends of the chopsticks should be placed on a chopstick rest when the chopsticks are not being used.
- Reversing chopsticks to use the opposite clean end is commonly used to move food from a communal plate, although it is not considered to be proper manners. Rather, the group should ask for extra chopsticks to transfer food from a communal plate.
- Chopsticks should not be crossed on a table or vertically stuck in the rice, as this symbolizes death.
- It is rude to rub wooden chopsticks together after breaking them apart, as this communicates to the host that the user thinks the chopsticks are cheap.
- Koreans consider it rude to pick up the rice bowl from the table to eat from it.
- Unlike other chopstick cultures, Koreans use a spoon for their rice and soup, and chopsticks for most other things at the table. (Traditionally, Korean spoons have a relatively flat, circular head with a straight handle, unlike Chinese or Japanese soup spoons.)
- Unlike the rice eaten in many parts of China, cooked Korean rice can be easily picked up with chopsticks, although eating rice with a spoon is more acceptable.
- When laying chopsticks down on the table next to a spoon, one must never put the chopsticks to the left of the spoon. Chopsticks are only laid to the left for deceased family members.
- The blunt handle ends of chopsticks are not used to transfer food from common dishes.
- When no communal chopsticks are available, it is perfectly acceptable to pick up banchan and eat it without putting it down on one's bowl first.
- Also, there is an old saying suggesting that the closer one's hand is to the tips of the chopsticks, the longer they stay unmarried.
- As with Chinese etiquette, the rice bowl is raised to the mouth and the rice is pushed into the mouth using the chopsticks.
- Unlike with Chinese dishes, it is also practical to use chopsticks to pick up rice in plates, such as fried rice, because Vietnamese rice is typically sticky.
- It is proper to always use two chopsticks at once, even when using them for stirring.
- One should not pick up food from the table and place it directly in the mouth. Food must be placed in your own bowl first.
- Chopsticks should not be placed in the mouth while choosing food.
- Chopsticks should never be placed in a "V" shape when done eating; it is interpreted as a bad omen.
Environmental impactIn China alone, an estimated 45 billion pairs of disposable chopsticks are used and thrown away annually. This adds up to 1.7 million cubic metres of timber or 25 million fully grown trees every year. To encourage that people use and throw away less, in April 2006 a 5% tax was added to the price of chopsticks in China. This measure is part of the first tax package in 12 years.
Medical problemsA 2003 study found that regular use of chopsticks may slightly increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the hand, a condition where cartilage gets worn off, leading to pain in the hand joints, particularly among the elderly.http://www.niams.nih.gov/ne/highlights/spotlight/2004/chopstick.htm There have also been concerns regarding the use of certain disposable chopsticks made from dark wood bleached white that may pose a health risk, causing coughing or even leading to asthma.
A 2006 Hong Kong Department of Health survey has found that the proportion of people using serving chopsticks, spoons or other serving utensils has increased from 46% to 65% since the SARS outbreak in 2003.
- Japanese Chopsticks (Ohashi) Etiquette
- Japanese Chopsticks (Ohashi) Etiquette Errors
- Chopsticks Mastery and Etiquette
- Erik's Chopsticks Gallery
- Bring Your Own Chopsticks Movement Gains Traction in Asia - The link between chopsticks and deforestation.
- A clip to help adults and children learn how to use Chopsticks
- How to use Chopsticks?
- Non-disposable chopsticks to save the forests -- Greenpeace China
chopsticks in Catalan: Bastonets
chopsticks in Czech: Jídelní hůlky
chopsticks in Danish: Spisepinde
chopsticks in German: Essstäbchen
chopsticks in Estonian: Söögipulgad
chopsticks in Spanish: Palillos
chopsticks in Esperanto: Haŝioj
chopsticks in French: Baguettes (couverts asiatiques)
chopsticks in Classical Chinese: 箸
chopsticks in Korean: 젓가락
chopsticks in Indonesian: Sumpit
chopsticks in Icelandic: Matarprjónar
chopsticks in Italian: Bacchette per il cibo
chopsticks in Hebrew: מקלות אכילה
chopsticks in Lithuanian: Valgomosios lazdelės
chopsticks in Hungarian: Evőpálcika
chopsticks in Macedonian: Стапчиња за јадење
chopsticks in Dutch: Eetstokjes
chopsticks in Japanese: 箸
chopsticks in Norwegian: Spisepinner
chopsticks in Polish: Pałeczki
chopsticks in Portuguese: Hashi
chopsticks in Russian: Палочки для еды
chopsticks in Simple English: Chopstick
chopsticks in Finnish: Syömäpuikot
chopsticks in Swedish: Ätpinnar
chopsticks in Thai: ตะเกียบ
chopsticks in Vietnamese: Đũa
chopsticks in Contenese: 筷子
chopsticks in Chinese: 筷子